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Standard
Abrasion testing

The material abrasion test is used to determine the quality of anodic oxidation coatings. The coating quality crucially depends on the sealing of the pores in the anodic oxidation coating. The test specimen is immersed in an acid solution whereupon the extent of the abrasion (“weight loss”) in the acid defines the measure for the existing quality of the anodised coating.

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Accelerated weathering test; UV lamps

For this accelerated weathering test the specimens are placed into a chamber with UV-lamp (UV-A, UV-B). After exposure to UV light and humidity in cyclic change, colour and gloss stability of organic and metallic surfaces as well as of textiles are examined.

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Accelerated weathering test; Xenon lamps acc. to DIN EN ISO 16474-2, DIN EN ISO 4682-2, PV 3930 and PV 3929

Accelerated weathering tests are counted among the artificial forms of weathering. This test is used to examine the destruction of the surface of plastics or coatings by filtered Xenon arc radiation in connection with cyclic spraying or flowing with deionized water. This procedure is also known as sun test and is used for the determination of the weathering resistance of coating materials in outdoor areas.

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Adhesion test acc. to DIN EN ISO 2409

The test method of the cross-cut is used for coating thicknesses below 250 μm.

After cutting through the paint layer stretching down to the substrate at regular intervals, the adhesion can be evaluated using a special cross-cut tester with exchangeable cutting tools. A cross-cut characteristic value of 0 is the best result at which no detatchment has taken place and a characteristic value of 5 is the worst result at which the paint film of the grid has completely flaked off.

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Admittance measurement acc. to DIN EN ISO 2931

The admittance is performed to test the sealing quality of anodised aluminium. For it, an eddy current is applied on the base material aluminium and an electrolyte cell and the admittance is measured.

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Bend test acc. to DIN EN ISO 1519

The mandrel bend test is used to determine tensile strength as well as adhesive strength of a coating consisting of paints, coating material or similar products on a metallic substrate by bending the test specimen around a cylindric mandrel. Then, the coating is visually examined by means of a 10x-magnifying glass to determine if the coating shows cracks or if it detaches itself from the substrate. Examined with the naked eye, the coating must not show any cracking or flaking. According to the specifications the mandrel bend test can be executed with different bending radii.

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Cleanliness analysis

Usually IFO carries out technical cleanliness analyses at automotive components. These components are first cleaned with appropriate cleaning agents. This is followed by an analysis of the contamination according to the required standards, which can be done gravimetrically as well as by particle counting.

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Climate test acc. to PV 1200, PV 2005-A, PTL 8140, BMW PR 303.5, DBL 5471 and DBL 5416

The test comprises different climates in order to simulate various environmental conditions. The test specimens are exposed to strong temperature variations and variations in air humidity while analyzing the resistance of the coatings.

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Colour measurement acc. to DIN EN ISO 11664-4

The measuring of the colourimetry is executed with a special device. This device displays colour numbers which can unambigously be assigned to the corresponding colour. The measurement can be performed by two classes of instruments with different measuring arrangement. The 45°/0° geometry employs 45° circumferential illumination and 0° viewing perpendicular to the same plane, which takes the surface structure into account. In  d/8° geometry the sample is illuminated diffusely using an Ulbricht sphere.

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Condensation water atmosphere acc. to DIN EN ISO 6270-1 and DIN EN ISO 6270-2

The condensation water test is used to determine the behaviour of coatings under defined climatic conditions examining the resistance of coatings in humid atmosphere. The test can be performed in two different modes: constant humidity or condensation water with alternating atmosphere.

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Constant condensation water atmosphere with 0,2 l resp. 2,0 l Sulfur dioxide acc. to DIN EN ISO 3231 resp. DIN 50018 (Kesternich)

It is a matter of common knowledge that corrosion rates are increased in polluted urban and industrial atmospheres. The high corrosivity of the atmosphere in the past was due to the high level of acidic pollution and many sulphur dioxide. In order to be able to estimate the efficiency of coating systems and protection layers the so called Kesternich testing was developed. Apart from the addition of sulphur dioxide, the environmental conditions are quite similar to that of the condensation water test.

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Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres – Salt spray tests acc. to DIN EN ISO 9227/ASTM B 117

The salt spray test is used for the determination of the corrosion behaviour of metallic or non-metallic components (e.g. coating materials) at an accelerated rate. For this purpose, a corrosion-boosting atmosphere is created by spraying a sodium chloride solution (NSS-test). The corrosivity of the spray medium can be intensified by adding acetic acid (AASS-test) and copper chloride (CASS-test) to the sodium chloride solution.

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Cupping test acc. to DIN EN ISO 1520

The Erichsen cupping test is used to examine the deep-drawability of coatings made of paint or similar material. A die is pressed onto the sheet metal plate as long as a crack develops or the coating flakes off the metallic substrate. The deformation by cupping is carried out under standardized conditions.

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Cyclic corrosion test (CCT)

The Cyclic Corrosion Testing (CCT) has been developed for the simulation of real-world corrosion failures under accelerated laboratory conditions and is mainly used within the automotive industry. The test comprises different climates and corrosion atmospheres in order to simulate various environmental conditions.

The examinations are carried out acc. to VDA 621-415, DIN EN ISO 11997-1, DIN EN ISO 60068-2-52, PV 1209 and PV 1210.

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Pressure water-jetting test acc. to DIN EN ISO 16925

During the preassure water-jetting test, a coated surface is tested for its resistance against high-pressure cleaners. For it, the coating is scribed and exposed to the water jet with defined parameters. The coating must not flake off during the test.

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Dye-spot test acc. to DIN EN ISO 2143:2018

The dye-spot test is used to determine the quality of the sealing process of anodised aluminium. The sample is exposed to an acid and afterwards coloured with a dye. If the dye is not removable by a cloth, it is an indication for pores in the anodized layer, which have not been sufficiently sealed.

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Falling sand abrasion test acc. to ASTM D968

The falling sand test is used for the determination of the resistance of organic coatings to abrasion by abrasive falling onto coatings applied to a plane rigid surface.

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Dye-spot test acc. to DIN EN ISO 2143:2018

The dye-spot test is used to determine the quality of the sealing process of anodised aluminium. The sample is exposed to an acid and afterwards coloured with a dye. If the dye is not removable by a cloth, it is an indication for pores in the anodized layer, which have not been sufficiently sealed.

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Filiform corrosion test acc. to DIN EN ISO 4623-2 / DIN EN 3665

This test is used to evaluate the protective effect of coatings on aluminium against filiform corrosion. For this purpose, scratches stretching down to the substrate are made into a test specimen. After that the test specimen is placed into a test chamber which is vaporized with hydrochloric acid for a certain period of time and under certain conditions. Alternatively, the hypochloric acid can also dropped onto the scratch. After 1000 hours in a climate chamber with constant parameters, the resulting corrosion creep is evaluated.

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Gloss measurement acc. to DIN EN ISO 2813

The reflectometer is used to measure the gloss of a coating at standardized measuring geometries. The reflectometer value of mirror-bright surfaces is between 90 and 100 units while the value of bright surfaces is between 70 and 90. If the value is between 30-70 units it is called silk gloss or silk matt. The matt area starts at a reflectometer value of < 30.

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Impact test acc. to DIN EN ISO 6272-2 /ASTM D2794

The impact test is used to examine resistance, ductility and tensile strength of a coating from paint, coating material or similar. The indenter falls from variable heights onto the test specimen and then the test specimen is examined for cracks or flaking.

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Indentation acc. to DIN EN ISO 2815

The film hardness of a single-layer or laminated coating structure is determined by the indentation test according to Buchholz. The indenter is positioned shock-free on the horizontally aligned surface of the organic coating to be tested and taken off again after a test period of 30 seconds. The length of the lens-shaped indentation mark in the paint film is determined and by that the indentation resistance according to Buchholz can be calculated.

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Impact test acc. to DIN EN ISO 6272-2 /ASTM D2794

The impact test is used to examine resistance, ductility and tensile strength of a coating from paint, coating material or similar. The indenter falls from variable heights onto the test specimen and then the test specimen is examined for cracks or flaking.

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Machu test
machuttest

For the Machu test, a cross cut is applied to the coating of a test specimen. After that, the test specimen is exposed for 48 hours to a test solution consisting of sodium chloride and hydrogen peroxide. The corrosion behaviour can be determined by the corrosion creep at the cross cut.

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Martindale test acc. to DIN CEN/TS 16611

The Martindale test is usually performed for textiles or furniture. Since 2020 it is also used as part of the Qualicoat approvals of powder coatings to determine the abrasion resistance. An abrasive pad is moved across the coating in an defined pattern. Afterwards, the gloss is measured and compared with an undamaged sample.

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Materialography

This procedure is used to make the structure of a metal or plastic visible by specified grinding and polishing as well as by subsequent finishing procedures, e.g. etching. It can also be used for the determination of very thin layers. In general, the evaluation is carried out under the optical microscope with the respective magnification

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Pistol test acc. to DIN ISO 4532

For the pistol test, a ball made from hardened steel is shot with a defined force onto the surface of the sample. The coating is then checked for cracks or flaking.

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Mortar test acc. to DIN EN 12206-1

The mortar test is a resistance test for organic coatings against mortar. As mortar is a very alkaline material, it must be verified that the paint layer will not be damaged. The test is mostly used in building construction and the facade area. It is evaluated according to Qualicoat, GSB and AAMA.

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Pencil hardness acc. to DIN EN ISO 15184 / ASTM D3363

This test method covers a procedure for rapid, inexpensive determination of the film hardness of an organic coating on a substrate by using pencil leads of known hardness.

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Pistol test acc. to DIN ISO 4532

For the pistol test, a ball made from hardened steel is shot with a defined force onto the surface of the sample. The coating is then checked for cracks or flaking.

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Pressure water-jetting test acc. to DIN EN ISO 16925

During the preassure water-jetting test, a coated surface is tested for its resistance against high-pressure cleaners. For it, the coating is scribed and exposed to the water jet with defined parameters. The coating must not flake off during the test.

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Pull-off test acc. to DIN EN ISO 4624

In contrary to the cross-cut for coating thicknesses, the pull-off test is used for coating thicknesses of more than 250 μm. This test method is used to examine the adhesive strength of coatings. A die is pasted to the surface and pulled off from the test specimen after the curing process has been completed. During the pull-off, the necessary force is measured.

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REM / EDX analysis

By means of the scanning electron microscope examination (SEM) the surface of a test specimen can be strongly magnified. A fine electron beam scans the surface following a specified pattern. This process is called “screening“. During the screening the interaction of the electrons with the object is used for the production of an image. These images are copies of the object surface. The energy-dispersive X-ray micro analysis (EDX) is a form of electron microscopy which is used to examine the chemical composition of a test specimen.

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Resistance tests acc. to DIN EN ISO 2812 / TL 212

By means of resistance tests coatings are tested for their resistance against chemicals, operating agents and cleaning agents. This includes the alkali resistance test according to TL 212.

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Scratch resistance test acc. to DIN EN ISO 1518-1

During the scratch resistance test, a standardized tip is moved with a constant preassure over the surface of a coating. Depending on the requirements, the tip must not reach the substrate or leave an indentation track behind.

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Stone chip test acc. to DIN EN ISO 20567-1

The stone chip resistance of organic coatings is particularly of interest for the automotive industry. For stone chip simulation chilled iron grit is blasted onto the surface under defined conditions as the severity of the impact crucially depends on the adjusted pressure and distance. The assessment of stone chip resistance is perfomed by using standardized comparative patterns.

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Surface texture assessment acc. to DIN EN ISO 4287

Roughness measuring is used to measure the roughness of blasted or sweeped (with less pressure than blasting) metalic surfaces.

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Test for color fastness

For examining the light fastness the test specimens are placed into a chamber, which is equipped with a Xenon lamp. After the exposure, the extent of colour fade of the exposed test specimen is evaluated by means of the greyscale by comparison with an unexposed reference sample.

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Thermal shock resistance acc. to DIN EN ISO 2819 section 4.12

The thermal shock test is mostly used to check the adhesion of galvanic coatings. The sample is heated to high temperatures and quenched in water. The coating must not have any cracks or flakings.

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Thickness measurement acc. to DIN EN ISO 2360 and DIN EN ISO 2178

The magnetic inductive procedure is an electromagnetic procedure enabling the non-destructive determination of the thickness of magneticaly neutral layers on magnetic substrates (e.g. steel). Depending on the coating thickness the magnetic forces change. This effect is measured and directly converted into coating thickness at the measuring instrument. 

For non-magnetic substrates the eddy-current method is used.

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